Is It Possible to Terraform the Moon? – Video

Is It Possible to Terraform the Moon? – Video

The idea of terraforming the Moon may seem like a far-fetched concept from science fiction, but in reality, it is a possibility that could one day become a reality. In a recent video on Science and Futurism with Isaac Arthur, the host explored the idea of transforming the Moon into a habitable world with seas and sky, making it a blue and green gem in our sky.

Terraforming the Moon would involve a monumental task that would require advanced technologies and a strong desire to make it happen. There are different approaches to terraforming, including terraforming, para-terraforming, and bioforming, which involve making the Moon more Earth-like through various means.

One of the advantages of terraforming the Moon is its proximity to Earth and its low gravity, making it an ideal location for a base to launch interplanetary colonization efforts. Additionally, the Moon receives Earth-parallel levels of sunlight, making it a practical location for solar power.

While the concept of terraforming the Moon may seem daunting, it is not impossible. With the right technologies and resources, the Moon could one day be transformed into a habitable world, bringing us one step closer to becoming an interplanetary species.

Watch the video by Isaac Arthur

Video Transcript

We have gazed upon the Moon with  wonder since the dawn of humanity,   and named its craters as seas, but  could those become true seas one day? Welcome to science and Futurism with Isaac Arthur,  and I am your aforementioned host, Isaac Arthur.  

Today we will be discussing if it could ever be  possible, let alone practical, to Terraform the   Moon. To give it seas and sky and make it a  beautifully blue and green gem in our sky.  The simple answer is yes, it can be done, though  it is a monumental task and how practical it  

Is will depend a lot on both your available  technologies and how badly we want to do it.   Today we’ll be discussing several different  approaches and what is involved in each.  But let’s begin by laying out some basic  principles of terraforming, the main hurdles  

To doing it to the Moon, the advantages  it has, and some misconceptions involved.  First, there’s two basic camps of terraforming,  which are meant to make them more Earth-like,   and that’s terraforming and para-terraforming.  There’s no truly distinct line between the two  

But para-terraforming tends to manifest  in options like a dome on a planet full   of pressurized and breathable air, or artificial  lighting to match Earth’s sunlight duration and   spectrum. There’s also bioforming, which is when  you alter organisms to fit an alien environment.  

You might adjust everything’s biology to be  content with a 27 hour day on one planet,   or more overtly, give humans and other mammals  gills so they could live on a water planet.  With very few exceptions, we should assume  all of humanity’s efforts off of Earth will  

Use a mix of all three options, both  over the course of the endeavor and in   the final product. Even on earth we may opt  to para-terraform our tundras or deserts,   and exact matches for Earth should be rare in the  galaxy. In nearly every case you have the ability  

To use one of those options far more heavily  than the others if you prefer that approach.  For bioforming, you can probably cook up some  form of life that can live on a radiation scorched   airless vacuum with sufficient effort, even  if it means a total overhaul of everything to  

Use silicon-based life in place of carbon. You  can get heavy-handed with terraforming to take   a planet with a 27-hour day and slow its rotation  to 24, by extreme efforts. For para-terraforming,   we tend to view this as the active use of  technology to replicate Earth-like living  

Conditions. You might alter daylight by use  of orbiting mirrors and shades, or gravity   by centrifugal force. An extreme version of that  might be creating an incredibly elaborate virtual   world like in The Matrix on some barren rock and  plugging everyone there into, while covering the  

Rock in power collectors and robotic factories. In all of these cases there’s likely to be a sweet   spot for each planetary setup that varies by what  the colonists want and what their technologies   make most economical or practical. And that is  likely to change with time. For instance, there  

Are something like a million planets in just this  solar system – the 8 we talk about that no longer   includes Pluto are the Major Planets, and that’s  basically the objects more massive than our Moon,   Pluto is smaller and less massive than our Moon. There’s a couple other moons bigger and more  

Massive than our Moon too but there are probably a  hundred dwarf planets akin to Pluto kicking around   the outer solar system and millions of minor  planets, a large portion of which are asteroids.   In a future solar empire, every last one of  these will be para-terraformed in some fashion,  

And Earth will stand as the crown jewel, hub of  trade and knowledge. This will likely continue   even as we expand out into billions of stars in  this galaxy, because almost every colony among   the stars will maintain some sort of lifeline  with Earth. They would bring a lot of practical  

Experience and knowledge about how to make  dead rocks livable and a lot of industrial   might and manpower to the interplanetary economy. Terraforming options will be very dependent on the   resources you can commit to the project. If the  Moon is the brightest jewel in the heaven’s next  

To Earth, itself the center of a powerful  empire or confederacy of growing worlds,   then the sheer amount of muscle they can throw at  the Moon is almost unimaginable. In the meantime,   no place is closer to us and easier for  us to exert efforts on. We can get stuff  

To the Moon much easier than Mars or Venus. That includes signals, as signal lag from the   Moon is only a bit over a second each way, not  many minutes like our inner solar system, hours   for the outer system, or years to neighboring  stars. That means you can run robots on the moon  

Controlled by people here on Earth. And while  more advanced AI seems certain in the future,   ones able to work fairly autonomously even  if we limit it to very-subhuman intelligence,   the sheer advantage of a more automated industrial  base makes everything about space travel and  

Development enormously easier and gives you a  larger amount of resources to throw at projects.  The Moon’s proximity to Earth and its low  gravity also makes it our natural first base   to launch not just interplanetary colonization,  but build up efforts in Earth orbital space,  

As bulk raw materials and fuel can be gotten  off the Moon for just a few percent of the   energy cost of getting off Earth with its thick  atmosphere and high gravity. For this reason,  

The Moon is likely to be heavily mined and home to  a lot of manufacturing, for the build up of space,   and thus is likely to eventually have a lot  of muscle to turn efforts to improving its own  

Livability, long before a place like Mars might. Indeed, I would go so far as to argue the Moon   will be the first place we terraform, even if it  might be a more heavy case of paraterraforming and   thus might not be the first place to decently  approximate a naturally livable planet. Though  

Again, unless we find some decent twin to Earth in  a neighboring solar system, every other candidate   would also need a lot of para-terraforming,  with Venus maybe being the easiest, not Mars.  This hardly makes it easy and we should begin  the major challenges for terraforming the Moon by  

Mentioning that it is also an advantage. The Moon  is one of the few objects that gets Earth-parallel   levels of sunlight. Mercury, Venus, and the  Aten Asteroid Group get more or equal lighting,   but most objects are further away,  at least for most of their orbits. 

As such, the Moon is not just a place where  solar power is practical, but which needs no   more filtering of sunlight than our own Atmosphere  provides us. However, nice as that is, there’s   two problems with that lighting. First, that  filtering our atmosphere does is hardly trivial,  

If our air suddenly became transparent to all  that ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation   we would be burned badly. Second, the sun  rises and sets on Earth and the Moon both,   there is no dark side to the Moon except in the  sense of the back side of it being invisible to  

Us here on Earth. The Moon orbits the Earth and  always shows it the same face and it does this   once a month so that’s how long its day is too. For the sake of discussion, yes it would be  

Possible to unglue the Moon from its tidal locking  with Earth, and if it were terraformed with seas   and sky they would act like a lubricant against  tidal breaking, cutting down on how much effort   had to be exerted to keep the Moon at a 24  hour day. The rotational energy of a sphere  

Rises approximately with the square of its angular  velocity. If you want to spin the Moon almost 30   times faster, so it rotated every day, you are  talking nearly a thousand times the rotational   energy it has now but it’s actually very tiny  compared to Earth’s, it’s around 3 x 10^23 Joules,  

Whereas Earth’s is almost a million times higher,  so even spun at Earth’s rate of once a day, it’s   far lower mass and radius means it would still  only need a thousandth of the energy Earth did.  And indeed that once-a-day Moon’s rotational  energy would be a little under the amount the Sun  

Produces every second, and only a small fraction  of the sunlight hitting the Moon during a period   it would need for tidal locking to reoccur if left  to its own devices. So keeping the Moon spinning   once per day is entirely doable. This is arguably  still para-terraforming since it would require  

Continuous technological effort to keep it from  slowing down, as opposed to simply putting various   mirrors in shades in a 24-hour orbit of the Moon. I think we need to acknowledge a conceptual   difference with para-terraforming though, with the  idea that para-terraforming is where things are  

More immediately vulnerable to breakdown. A fleet  could come by and wipe out those orbital mirrors   and shades. As could some Kessler syndrome event  of cascade collisions of orbital junk. Neither   would be likely to spin a planet or moon  back down again to a lower rotation. While  

Para-terraforming efforts might need regular  maintenance, a breakdown of civilization for   a century or two after some collapse of an  empire or disaster isn’t going to result in   that planet de-terraforming. This is obviously a  very gray and somewhat arbitrary distinction too,   but I think a degree of vulnerability or  time-sensitivity is implied with para-terraforming  

And that its absence tends to be where we  consider it more in the line of terraforming.  So could we spin the Moon up? Yes, and we might too. We could   do the same with Venus, to give it a day length  like Earth’s instead of its backwards day-night  

Cycle longer than its own year, but since  Venus is nearly as massive and wide as Earth   we would need to give almost three-quarter’s Earth  rotational energy to match our day. Alternatively,   Mars, at a tenth our mass and half our radius  would have only a fortieth Earth’s rotational  

Energy for the same day length, and already  has one only about half an hour longer,   so it already has about 95% of that energy. For Mars, we might add to its rate of spin,   and angular momentum, by dropping comets on it to  bring it valuable volatiles like water, ammonia,  

And methane. It would not be hard to coordinate  all your incoming drops of those to add angular   momentum to Mars. That’s no small task but if  you’re planning to add those to Mars you might   as well do it that way and get the free rotational  bump. Especially since dropping an object onto it  

To add spin means it impacts at a slightly lower  velocity, since it’s coming in near the equator   and in the direction of existing spin. Less  crash damage. Doing it the other way around,   to subtract spin, would produce stronger impacts.  But you can also magnetically drain a planet’s  

Rotation as a power source, by building a  planet-sized dynamo around the planet. You   can add spin that way too, but must pay energy in. You also have the option of launching material off   a planet, or Moon, and using that momentum  to shove your planet’s rotation up or down.  

When we think of exporting large amounts of raw  material off the Moon, or Venus for that matter,   we can imagine a large mass driver or  space catapult that launched so as to   add or subtract spin. Two opposing launchers  could ensure that the spin remained the same,  

Adding when one launched and subtracting when  the other did, so you could get a body to the   right spin then keep it there. A directed energy  beam from the Sun could do it too, though radiant   pressure alone is not your best option. A beam  of ionized particles or concentrated solar wind  

Isn’t a great thing to hurl at a planet with an  atmosphere you want to keep either, but would   also work on an initially airless planet. You could build big towers up into space   with giant reflectors on them, or deflecting  magnets – it’s quite easy to do without any  

Gravity or air constraints — and use them  like a big solar windmill to spin the Moon,   or any other body for that matter. However, I  think you would opt for timing your landings and   launches so they added inertia. And a big mining  hub like the Moon in an automated Kardashev Scale  

Civilization might be belching out entire megatons  of matter every moment at interplanetary speeds,   while receiving large amounts of other materials,  which is a lot of inertia changing hands.  In any event, the key notion there is that you are  likely to try to piggyback a lot of terraforming  

Operations onto existing projects to save effort.  I would not be surprised if we saw rotational   changes done while terraforming planets, and  you might piggyback off the para-terraforming   effort too. Our vastly cheaper alternative  to spin a planet, at least in the short term,  

Is erecting a big solar shade and mirrors to  keep the normal sunlight off the planet and   bounce it down in a proper 24-hour pattern. This  is ideal for a place like Venus as we can then  

Cool it down over a couple centuries and make  it livable and use mirrors to bring in a 24-hour   day at Earth-level of intensity and warmth. You can make them wavelength selective too. This   lets you add more light of a given wavelength  to a planet for other stars than our own,  

Or to remove most of the harmful ultraviolet  light. Given that such shades and mirrors need   to be only a few micrometers thick, even though  they must have a combined surface area similar   to the planet or Moon they are on, this is not a  big investment of mass. Over time they may become  

A hassle to repair and replace and be viewed as  not as good as the real thing. In which case,   such shades might be large power collectors and  you could beam that energy down to the planet as a  

Power source for the people and industries below. A shade like that would represent a huge amount of   power and a constant one, there’s no night time  or weather at some planet’s L1 Lagrange point,   so you could use your surplus power as your  civilization grew, or from outside your peak  

Hours, to help spin that planet up, and when  you get there you just recycle your orbital   shades and mirrors and enjoy a natural day.  Or most of them anyway, this sort of orbital   infrastructure is likely to be a common feature  on any planet or moon we settle on as it has so  

Many advantages and is relatively cheap to deploy. It’s also a bit trickier on a moon than a planet   since the Moon’s own L1 Lagrange point is with  Earth, not the Sun, and the same for it’s L2,  

So you need to orbit them around the Moon at a  radius of about 6000 miles or 10,000 kilometers   for a period of one day. You would likely use  the same big thin sheets for mirror and shades,   and just give them some internal power collectors  and gyros so they could rotate themselves to  

Either bounce light away from the Moon or add  light to it, and they’d spin to reflect light   away when in between the Moon and Sun. This  amounts to building a micro Dyson swarm around   the Moon to keep light out and I suspect you would  instead try for an orbital ring around the Moon  

That just had a big opaque circular shade on it  moving to interpose with the Sun, and a similar   approach is probably a good pick for Mercury due  to its decidedly strange days. You just open or   close your sun shade or mirror on that ring  to the amount needed to match what you want. 

This is a decidedly clunky approach though,  and combined with the vastly lower energy   requirement to achieve proper spin, is why I think  we might see that brute force rotation adjustment   occur. Which would make for some impressive  tides once we got air and water in place,  

As Earth would cause a lot more tidal warping  on the Moon than the Moon does to us, which is   why it’s tidally locked in the first place. We obviously haven’t got time today to run   through all our options for terraforming in the  same length, but this topic is one we have tended  

To skim over in our other terraforming videos like  Planetary Terraforming Techniques, and I think   it applies more to the Moon. Alternatively, we  devoted an entire episode to get a magnetosphere   around Mars – which is much easier than folks tend  to assume and doesn’t involve nuking its core. And  

The same options can be applied to our Moon. But it brings up our other challenge for   terraforming the Moon, and that’s the issue that  things aren’t very heavy on the Moon because of   its low gravity, and that combined with its lack  of a magnetosphere makes giving it an atmosphere  

Very hard. Or rather having it keep an atmosphere  once put on. If we just opened a magic wormhole   to the Moon and dumped an atmosphere on it, it  would not instantly fly off, but the leakage  

Would be awful. We can’t model that well enough to  give useful figures but while it might be several   lifetimes before any appreciable drop occurred,  it wouldn’t be the same geologically long process   it was on Mars of a few hundred million years. And if you spent a thousand years shipping in an  

Atmosphere and have to replace your atmosphere  every several millions years, then that just   means you went from having 10,000 mega-freighters  dropping air off every month to just one swinging   by to replenish miniscule losses. Alternatively  if you needed to replenish it on a timeline of  

Centuries, I think that becomes unsustainable, and  we don’t know what that timeline would look like   for a terraformed Moon. It also represents a lot  of air, as you need more air over any given area   on a lower gravity planet than on Earth,  because the lower gravity makes the same  

Amount of air have less weight and generate less  pressure down on the surface. You get a very tall   atmosphere as a result, and a thicker one in  terms of there being much more air above you,   which would change the visual properties of  the sky, particularly near dawn and dusk. 

Now the reality is this atmospheric loss issue  is a hard problem to solve, there are several   mechanisms for atmospheric loss and they all  happen faster when you have lower gravity,   or are hotter, or have no magnetosphere protecting  you. The Moon has lower gravity than Mars,  

Is closer to the Sun than Mars and has it shine  on spots for two weeks straight to further heat   things, and has no magnetosphere of note. The easy para-terraforming fix is basically   to dome over everything. As we saw recently in our  episode the Domes of Mars, it is indeed possible  

To build diamond hard domes – diamond is just  carbon after all – with multiple panes that are   crystal clear, filter out harmful sunlight, and  help protect against micrometeors. You could make   them sturdier than the steel armor on a battleship  if you wanted and in that episode we detailed a  

Number of backup and emergency protocols to make a  dome a safer place to live than under an open sky.  Which is part of the problem. I’m not sure you  would ever not have those domes up given the  

Advantages they have if big and crystal clear.  Indeed so long as they are tall enough to hold   in a normal atmospheric depth, so that  the pressure was much lower near the top,   you would not only still get weather but  have very slow leakage out of a given dome  

Even if a huge hole was punctured into it. The Moon’s low gravity is still a good deal   higher than what is needed to hold particles of  air moving at room temperature velocities. That’s   generally a few hundred meters per second and  the escape velocity of the Moon is around 2400  

Meters per second. Some particles will move faster  than that but the distribution of speeds falls off   very sharply, especially for heavier molecules  like nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide.   What’s mostly going to strip them off is high  speed ions. Typically a hydrogen atom or lone  

Proton from the Sun ramming them at roughly a  million miles per hour, which is not hyperbole.   A strong magnetic field bends most of those  out away from a planet, or moon, and prevents   all those collisions, and thus is even more  important than gravity for holding atmospheres. 

Again, see that episode about making a  Magnetosphere for Mars for details on how,   though there we recommend deploying a solar  powered magnet at the Martian L1 with the Sun,   and have the same problem as solar shades for  applying this to a Moon, so you would probably  

Use the alternative approach of a large orbital  ring to generate a magnetic field, which could   also serve as useful landing and launch platform.  It would be a lot less visually intrusive than   the solar shade and mirror approach too. I am generally of the opinion that an  

Artificial magnetosphere would be installed  almost everywhere we settled too, and even   Earth might deploy one just to further cut down on  the ionized particles coming in – which represent   dangerous radiation to those on space stations  or ships. This is a paraterraforming option,  

And one where if it breaks down you aren’t in  immediate danger, so not a jugular vein option,   and neither are very tall and strong domes  on the Moon, which if nice and clear don’t   represent any sort of visually unpleasant effect. I suspect that even with a magnetosphere and an  

Economy able to import air to replace that lost  by slower leakage, you might still have those   domes up. I think it would come down to the  net leakage rate and if the cost of replacing   that was higher than maintaining domes. You would  likely keep that artificial magnetosphere anyway.  

This would minimize energetic particles hitting  your domes which would cut down on their own wear   and tear and cut down on losses from cracked or  leaking domes. You would probably have a very   thin atmosphere above the domes anyway just from  leakage. This also means if you have short domes,  

Which get all their pressure from being a  sealed container stuffed with air, rather than   by weight of air like on earth, that when cracks  or ruptures do occur your air spilling out is not   being stripped off by solar wind very quickly  and can be recovered from this over-the-dome  

Atmosphere and pumped back down into domes. But that circumvents the gravity issue a bit,   which is our last big problem. As we discussed in  Moon: Megacity, if we could develop the ability   to artificially create black holes then you  could stick one in the center of any body,  

Be it an asteroid or a modest planet like Mars  and pump hydrogen and helium into that to generate   power and add mass. You just surround it with a  shell so your black hole is separate. You can also  

Skip on doing this at the core in favor of placing  many of them at a shallower depth in a grid around   the planet or Moon. We discussed black hole  tech more last week, and again Moon: Mega City,   covers your gravity options in more detail. As noted there, if you wanted full Earth-like  

Gravity on the Moon, which has 7.4% of Earth’s  surface area, you would need 7.4% of Earth’s mass,   and the Moon only has 1.2% of Earth’s  mass, so you would need to add 6.2% to it,  

Roughly 5 times what it has now. That’s a lot of  hydrogen and helium to ship in from Jupiter but   isn’t even a thousandth of Jupiter’s mass, and we  might do this to Jupiter’s 4 big Galilean Moons,   which are all comparable to our Moon in size,  and much closer to Jupiter for shipping purposes. 

Adding mass to the Moon would also raise tides  on Earth, though at the level of planetary   engineering we’re discussing, the increased  erosion on Earth from that would be miniscule   to correct for compared to everything else.  This obviously would help a lot for maintaining  

An atmosphere and one more like Earth’s. But if you are using domes and artificial   magnetospheres this question comes  down to whether or not lower gravity   is biologically adaptable. If it is, I suspect  you don’t try messing with the Moon’s mass. 

We know zero gravity is bad for our health, we  have no idea what lower gravity does and how   much is enough, but we tend to assume the Moon’s  gravity isn’t optimal for our health or those of   other terrestrial flora and fauna, though that  low gravity might make for some trees so tall that  

They laughed at redwoods. This is an example where  we just don’t know yet. You are likely to see a   large change in how ecosystems work in low gravity  though, see our life on low gravity planets   episode for discussion of that, but as a simple  example, ecological balances might shift a lot  

If your trees are taller and flying is easier, and  indeed running changes in low-gravity too, as each   springing step takes longer to lower your foot  down to the ground for the next one. So a given   predator-prey relationship might change massively  and disrupt ecologies you try to put in place. 

This is where bioforming might be a better  option than para-terraforming or even   terraforming options. You genetically tweak  organisms to better handle lower gravity and   re-balance your ecosystems. As we mentioned,  it is likely that every place we settle will   have its own unique blend of terraforming,  bioforming, and para-terraforming that it uses,  

And which might change at any time. A given planet  or moon might not have a unified government able   to make policy decisions on terraforming and  that’s why paraterraforming will often work   better. It’s a lot harder to complain if one of  the countries on your planet is using domes than  

It is to if they’re mass altering genetics  or bringing in tons of cometary bodies or   putting a black hole in your planet. And my assumption is that by the time   most larger bodies like the Moon, Mars, or  Venus have enough people to justify a planet  

Wide terraforming operation, rather than  habitation domes and their parallels,   that they will also have developed multiple  governments, be they sovereign or simply large   sub-divisions with different opinions than their  neighbors on where their planet or moon should go.  That time, intent, and willpower equation  is the last big aspect of terraforming,  

As while it might seem like a monumental task  to bring in a quadrillion of tons of nitrogen   from Venus or the outer solar system, and many  times that in water or hydrogen to make seas,  

It is in some ways easier to ship that than  to decide to keep doing it. If I need to bring   in 100 quadrillion tons of water to give  the Moon nice deep seas in those craters,   then that’s something like a trillion oil tanker  deliveries of water or ice, and if you had one  

Arriving every single second of every single day,  that’s about 30,000 years’ worth of deliveries.  All the while folks who might have been building  their homes and towns in those craters might be   having second thoughts about how much you really  need a sea there and if it really needs to be full  

Depth. Though with Earth hanging huge in their  sky, far larger than the Moon is in our sky,   they might have that as a constant reminder  of what terraforming success looks like.  It’s a long term project but in a civilization in  which mass automation makes mega-projects viable  

And which would likely see the Moon second  in power and influence in the interplanetary   settlement era only to Earth, I think the  resources would be there. Indeed you might   maintain willpower simply because radical life  extension technology might make it so people  

Survived from the earlier days who still  dreamed of completing the project. While   others might be quite used to the lower gravity  and the monochrome wasteland beyond the domes   and prefer dwelling underground anyway. They  might object to terraforming further. Later  

Generations might push the project once more  and seek to terraform the Moon after a pause.  Inevitably the question comes down to how  Earth-like you want your new home to be,   and how Earth-like your descendants want  it when it’s been made more habitable but  

They’ve adjusted too. Time will tell where the  happy medium lies. The political landscape of   those descendants will shift as the physical  landscape shifts. It will also shift with the   capabilities of technology to reshape a world,  and the balance point of practical and possible,  

Will all help determine the fate of our Moon  and of all those other worlds we come to. But   we saw today the many ways the Moon might  be terraformed, so we know it can be done. 

And for my part, I think a day will come  on Earth when we look up at that Moon in   the sky and see another sky, of white  clouds over blue seas and green lands.  We were discussing the differences between  terraforming and para-terraforming today  

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So that wraps us up for today but we have  a bonus episode this weekend, Sunday,   February 25th, on the topic of Vacuum Trains and  other hyperfast transit systems. Next week we’ll   be finishing the month on February 29th, as we  leap into the topic of life on colony ark ship  

Carrying people to new worlds that will carry  us ahead into this leap year and into March,   where we’ll head back to the dawn of time  for a look at Primordial Planets. Then we’ll   continue our discussion of terraforming  by asking if it is ethical and when,  

And what sorts of challenges future civilizations  will face on deciding whether or not a planet   should be terraformed and to what degree. If you’d like to get alerts when those and   other episodes come out, make sure to hit the  like, subscribe, and notification buttons. You  

Can also help support the show on Patreon, and  if you’d like to donate or help in other ways,   you can see those options by visiting  our website, You can   also catch all of SFIA’s episodes early and  ad free on our streaming service, Nebula,  

Along with hours of bonus content like Topopolis:  The Eternal River, at  As always, thanks for watching,  and have a Great Week!

Video “Can We Terraform The Moon?” was uploaded on 02/22/2024 to Youtube Channel Isaac Arthur

The post “Is It Possible to Terraform the Moon? – Video ” by GretAi was published on 02/24/2024 by